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The value of rhino ensures their future.
Published: Tue, 04-Jul-2017

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Issued by the Professional Hunters Association of South Africa

Rhino Conservation and Utilization in SA:
This position paper will provide some history regarding conservation in South Africa and shed light on the massive success story of rhino conservation and utilization in South Africa and how it came to be that we have approximately 20 000 rhino in South Africa today, distributed between our Government Reserves (such as Kruger) and privately owned game ranches.

• Dr Ian Player:
PHASA recognizes Dr Ian Player as the grandfather of conservation in South Africa. Dr Player is the recipient of many local and international conservation awards around the globe and his name is synonymous with Conservation in South Africa.

In approximately 1958 Dr Ian Player was working as a senior ranger for the then Natal Parks Board (today KZN Wildlife). During this time the Parks Board conducted a survey of the rhino populations in Umfolozi Game Reserve which was the South African stronghold for rhino in those days, with the highest population in SA. They established that there were less than 400 Rhino in the park.

Dr Player had the foresight to realize that if the population was limited to one area, its growth would be limited and they would be vulnerable. Therefore in approximately 1960 the Natal Parks Board began a stocking program, capturing rhino from Umfolozi to stock Hluhluwe Game reserve and a number of other State Parks in KZN as well as Kruger National Park. The populations began to multiply rapidly.

• KZN Rhino Populations:
In the late 1960s early 70s, the KZN population of white rhino had grown to the point where Natal Parks Board had to find a market for these rhino, because it was inevitable that based on the growth rate in some of the parks, the carrying capacity would be exceeded. Dr Player already dreamed that Rhino would be widespread across South Africa, he just didn’t know how? In the meantime he travelled to the USA where he marketed the sale of white rhino to wildlife parks. These were not Game reserves or national parks but were similar to Lion Parks in SA today, where visitors can enter a small enclosed area and view lions from their vehicles. He sold rhino successfully and in addition, he traded (swapped) rhino for specially modified big truck and trailers because back at home the plan was to continue spreading the range of the rhino and the vehicles that were required were not obtainable here.

• Private Rhino Ownership and Demand for Rhino
Back in SA, private landowners who had already begun game ranching were identified and they were offered rhino in those days at a cost of +-R200 to R250 per animal. In those days the game ranching industry was in its infancy and the professional hunting industry was just a fledgling.

Natal Parks Board realized that land owners needed an ‘incentive” to own, protect and breed Rhino. The Natal Parks Board began issuing permits for rhino to be hunted on private land, sustainably. This instantly created a financial incentive for the private ownership of rhino, which immediately created a demand for rhino. Natal Parks Board began selling off surplus rhino to private ranchers, similarly to them already selling nyala, impala, kudu, wildebeest and other species to game ranchers. The game ranching boom had begun! Surplus rhino were sold to the private sector just like the antelope species. An important point to note is that initially many land owners did not want rhino because they held no value, meaning they could not be hunted, they couldn’t trade with them. Rhino were initially NOT a worthwhile investment for game ranchers. This alone was a threat to Rhino.

Only when permits were issued that allowed rhinos to be sustainably hunted, did the demand for rhino grow, and with this their value was enhanced dramatically. The professional hunting industry, focusing on international hunting tourists also grew and PHASA was born. Ian Player promoted the value of rhino and hunting was a major factor of this brilliant concept. This led to the successful conservation and widespread growth of Rhino populations through the wise concept of sustainable utilization. The same principles applied to kudu, nyala, bontebok, black wildebeest and impala for example.

• Kenya: Ban on Hunting:
In 1976, Kenya stopped all hunting as a result of pressure from fanatical anti hunting/ utilization groups. Two things happened.
The first was that South Africa became a more desirable destination for foreign hunters; the main attraction at that time was rhino along with some plains game antelope species.
The second thing that happened was that Kenya’s wildlife began disappearing in the wilderness areas around the parks because nobody was benefitting from the wildlife and nobody had any incentive to protect the wildlife in the “wilderness areas”. Today Kenya’s wildlife is nothing close to what it once was; in fact their wildlife is limited to a few parks such as the Masai Mara and a few game ranches. Their rhino populations today, are miniscule in comparison to what we have in South Africa. They only have a few hundred left and many of these were re-introduced to Kenya from South Africa and many of these have already been poached. It’s ironic that Kenya is the country that has submitted a proposal to CITES to ban all trade of rhino, including legitimate trophy hunted rhino in South Africa and Swaziland, the world’s two strongholds for Rhino. Despite their failed conservation of Rhino, they are determined to impose restrictions on two countries which are renowned for rhino conservation successes. This issue will be discussed at the next CITES meeting in March 2013. We know that Kenya are the puppets of the fanatical anti hunting/ utilization groups who are the biggest threat to wildlife around the globe and Kenya’s wildlife is a fine example of this.

• 2013: Role of Private Wildlife Ranchers:
Today we have 10 000+ privately owned game ranches in South Africa covering an area of 20 500 000 million hectares. This is land that supports wildlife and is mostly marginal agricultural land. In contrast, the Government Reserves collectively cover a mere 7 500 000 million hectares. A huge portion of the privately owned land entertains hunting, and a lesser portion entertains photographic tourism and many landowners and reserves (state and private) do both. South Africa has approximately 6000 foreign hunter tourists visiting our country each year, and the game ranching and hunting industry accounts for approximately R8 Billion to the GDP each year, and it’s growing and so is the “space” that is home to wildlife. Employment is created to well over 100 000 people directly, the domino benefit to families of the employed is exponential. Privately owned game ranches account for approximately 2,5 million head of game, which is approximately four times more than what can be found in our state parks. This huge conservation success story which began in the late 1960s is all as a result of the value that was and is placed on wildlife, including rhino. Today there are +-20 000 rhino in South Africa, of which 5000+ live on privately owned game ranches.

• Value of Hunting:
No form of tourism or wildlife industry places more value on a wild animal than hunting does, including rhino. Even though rhino are being poached at an alarming rate, they must continue to be sustainably hunted and traded with. If legitimate trophy hunting is stopped and all legal trade on rhino is banned the first thing that will happen is that rhino will lose their value because the demand for rhino will decrease. The 5000+ rhino in private ownership will become a liability, they will (and already do) cost a fortune to protect and insure, and if these land owners cannot get a financial return from surplus rhino they will not want them anymore. It’s like anything in the 21st century, if an asset no longer has a value it is disposed of; this is a reality that everyone must face and accept. The minute the value of rhino decreases or is lost is the day that the rhino numbers will begin to decline. At the moment the vast majority of rhino poached are in state parks, far less are poached on private land, because the incentive to protect their private investment is paramount.

Why should rhino’s be hunted in reserves from time to time?
To demonstrate this a perfect example can be used of a rhino hunted in a community game reserve in Zululand during 2011. It was a specific old rhino bull. The fact that this bull was selectively hunted had no negative effect on the population of rhino whatsoever in this reserve or in the country. Poachers killing rhino indiscriminately and non-selectively, has a negative effect on the population. Instead this community benefitted financially (enormously) from this rhino. There is no better incentive for them to protect the remaining rhino on their reserve and one day another rhino can be sustainably hunted, for a substantial sum of money which will directly benefit this community again. Interestingly, the community reserve referred to also caters to photographic tourists. They are wisely making use of every responsible opportunity to benefit from their wildlife, and as a result their wildlife will remain protected because there is an incentive to protect it! This applies to many thousands of game ranches and some state reserves where hunting of rhino takes place. Hunting, like it or not, has played and will continue to play a pivotal role in the wildlife success story that we can be proud of in South Africa today.

Another example: A white rhino hunt (for a mature bull) became available in a well known South African Private reserve in late 2012. This reserve has a substantial white rhino population. All the income that is generated through hunting on this Reserve is ploughed back into the sound management of the reserve. If a mature (normally an old) rhino is hunted sustainably (quite frankly age is not the ultimate factor) out of a healthy population it has no negative effect on that population. In this particular case a very old bull was harvested; estimated to be approximately 35 years old. At some stage in the not too distant future this rhino would die, either through fighting or old age.
As a land owner and a believer in conservation through sustainable use, would the managers/ owners of this reserve rather have this rhino die of old age or would they rather get paid a substantial sum of money to have this rhino hunted, and plough that money back into protecting the other rhino in the reserve through sound management. Before going to print, this reserve had only lost 1 rhino to poaching. This is the success of rhino conservation in South Africa, this is one of the main reasons why we have 5000+_ rhino (privately owned) and 20,5 million hectares of privately owned land dedicated to wildlife in South Africa today. Stop legitimate trophy hunting for rhino, ban all trade in rhino, and the final loser will be the rhino. Let’s not end up like Kenya; do we want thousands of rhino or just a few hundred?

Poaching and Pseudo Hunting:
The vast majority of rhino poached in South Africa are being poached in our Government Reserves, far less have been plundered on private land. As long as private landowners have an incentive to continue protecting their rhino, rhino will continue to thrive on private land. This is the concept that was born in the late 1960s and it’s still relevant, if not more relevant today than ever before.

There is indeed a minority group of bad eggs in the Professional Hunting Industry (as far as we know who are not members of PHASA), just like one would find a few bad attorneys, car dealerships and pseudo doctors. These professional hunters have been involved in pseudo trophy hunting of rhino where the horns are destined for the illegal trade, where the horn is worth more than gold today. The syndicates and the professional hunters in question have exploited loopholes in some provinces legislation whereby they have been able to export rhino horns legally, under the guise of legitimate trophy hunting. Unfortunately all professional hunters have been painted with the same paint brush by the media, and the reality is that it’s only a minority that has been corrupted by greed! PHASA has stated categorically a number of times in the media that it condemns any form of pseudo hunting. PHASA co-operates closely with the DEA and various NGOs on this problem and going back as far as 2006 PHASA has been making suggestions to our Government on how to close down the pseudo hunting loop holes.

PHASA is an association of Professional Hunters who have been intimately involved in the conservation success story that South Africa is extremely proud of. PHASA markets South Africa as preferred hunting destination to foreign hunting tourists and PHASA is the recognized mouthpiece for Professional Hunting in South Africa by government and international organizations. PHASA is the largest association of its kind in the world and it was formed by pioneers in the game ranching and hunting industries 35 years ago.

Professional Hunting is a conservation tool, based on the sustainable utilization of natural resources.

PHASA supports legal, legitimate trophy hunting and condemns all activities which are not undertaken according to the PHASA Code of Conduct and laws of our land.

PHASA’s mission statement is to support the conservation and ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources, for the benefit of current and future generations, through the promotion of ethical hunting! (to ensure environmental protection for current and future generations in accordance with the Section 24 of the Bill of Rights of the South African Constitution.)

Non-detrimental findings:
The above is well supported by the summary of the non-detriment findings by the Scientific Authority, as published by Minister Edna Molewa in Government Gazette 36117, dated 1 February 2013, attached to this document as Annexure A.

In closing, legitimate legal trophy hunting poses no threat to rhino; in fact; in contrast, it promotes the protection of the species.

Issued by: (Ms) Adri Kitshoff, Chief Executive Officer, Professional Hunters’ Association of South Africa
Contact details: +27 (0)12-667-2048; +27 (0)83-650-044




The South African population of Ceratotherium simum simum (white rhinoceros) is included in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) for the exclusive purpose of allowing international trade in live animals to appropriate and acceptable destinations and the export of hunting trophies. In terms of Article IV of the Convention, an export permit shall only be granted for an Appendix II species when a Scientific Authority of the State of export has advised that such export will not be detrimental to the survival of that species. This document details the undertaking of a non-detriment finding (NDF) for C. simum simum and is based on the best current available information.

The white rhinoceros is a long-lived species with a low reproductive rate. It is relatively adaptable, being able to survive in a variety of grassland and savanna habitats. Individuals disperse rapidly into new areas and in unfenced areas can move over very large distances. The species is sensitive to human activity and is thus conservation dependent, occurring solely in protected areas and on game farms.
The distribution of the white rhinoceros in South Africa is fragmented. However, it is a widespread and common species in the country, with the approximate size of the national population estimated to number 18,800 individuals in 2010, a significant increase from the approximately 6,000 white rhinos in 1991. Analyses undertaken by the IUCN African Rhino Specialist Group indicate that the national average growth rate of the white rhino population was just over 7% from 1991 to 2010. A number of key events apparently contributed to the exponential increase in the national population of white rhino since the late 1800s, such as the advent of translocations and policy changes both locally and internationally that created economic incentives for the private ownership and protection of rhinos. There is however some uncertainty about the future national population trend since population models indicate that the white rhino population in the Kruger National Park, which represents just over 50% of the national herd, may be expected to fluctuate non-directionally between 9,000 and 12,000 animals.

The current major threat to South Africa's white rhino population is the continuing loss of individuals to poaching for their horn. During 2010, 1.8% of the national population was lost to poaching, while 2.4% of the national population, effectively representing 30% of the potential annual population increment, was illegally killed in 2011. The rate of poaching has increased exponentially nationwide from 0.03 rhinos per day prior to 2007 to 1.23 rhinos per day in 2011. While 1.69 rhinos were poached per day in the first quarter of 2012, the rate of poaching has dramatically declined in the second quarter to less than 1 rhino per day. Disinvestment of private rhino owners, especially in the provinces of Limpopo and Mpumalanga, is a further negative consequence of poaching due to the rising costs of security. Since approximately 23% of the national herd is kept on 22,274km2 of privately owned land, the loss of private sector interest in keeping white rhinos is a significant concern for the conservation of the species and the reduced introduction of rhinos to new areas is expected to result in a decline in the metapopulation growth rate. The average value of white rhino sold by the three biggest sellers
between 2008 and 2011 has decreased by just over R29,000 per head. This translates into a R424 million loss in white rhino asset value to the country between 2008 and mid 2011. Increased poaching also means there will be fewer surplus rhino that could be removed from populations to maintain productive densities and then sold. If turnover were to drop to half the 2008-2011 levels over the next 10 years, revenue that could have been generated from the sale of a surplus of approximately 6,920 white rhinos over a period of 10 years would be reduced by just under a quarter of a billion Rand, revenue that could have been used to purchase new
conservation land and to fund anti-poaching measures. Although the off-take from poaching is still at levels that are sustainable and are not yet causing a population decline, if the rate of poaching increase from 2010 to 2011 continues, there will be a detectable negative population growth rate in the Kruger National Park by 2016. A similar national trend is anticipated.
However, the decreased poaching rate recorded for the second quarter of 2012 may in fact mean that the year of anticipated population decline would be pushed back to 2018.
A high proportion (73%) of the white rhino population is generally well managed within protected areas, with offtakes managed in terms of ecological management plans. The white rhino population in the Kruger National Park (just over 50% of the national population) is managed in accordance with an adaptive management plan.

In KwaZulu-Natal, a management strategy and a status reporting framework currently supports harvest management for the species. There are no provincial plans in the remaining 8 provinces. A national biodiversity management plan for white rhino is currently being revised by the SADC Rhino Management Group (RMG) in accordance with the format for Biodiversity Management Plans (section 43 of the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act (NEMBA) of 2004). Legal harvest of white rhinos (i.e. hunting) is economically motivated and is regulated through a system of permits, mostly on private land. Prior to 2005, the number of white rhinos hunted was generally a function of market forces, with the market supporting the hunting of an average of 36 - 70 animals annually. Harvest has increased since 2005 to an average of 116 hunted animals (0.6% of the national population) annually, with less than 10 of these hunted from state controlled protected areas. Setting a hunting quota has been unnecessary to date as the off-take has been well within sustainable levels. Legal hunting, combined with the impact of poaching, has not yet reached a level where it has caused a cessation in population growth. An estimated 1.4% of the national herd is translocated to other areas annually. However, the removal of live animals for translocation purposes is not considered to be a form of harvest as these animals are not permanently removed
from the national population.

Hunting of white rhinos is well managed in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, while in certain provinces management of hunting on private land faces some challenges. In at least two provinces the numbers of white rhino kept on private land is inadequately known, and therefore sustainability of hunting, particularly in smaller populations, is also unknown, while management plans for ensuring sustainable harvest are lacking. High confidence can be placed in the monitoring of illegal and legal harvest in the Kruger National Park and KwaZulu-Natal as a whole, which together make up 70% of the national herd. However, highly variable monitoring of hunting is undertaken for the remainder of the national herd. Although the hunting permit system requires that all hunts are attended by conservation officials, this is not implemented effectively in at least two provinces.

The financial gains to the state and the private sector generated from owning, selling, translocating, viewing via ecotourism and hunting white rhino has greatly contributed to the conservation of this species in South Africa, and the white rhino population is now 10 times larger than the 1,800 individuals in the 1960s. Due to the significant economic benefits of hunting to game farmers (worth approximately $19 million over the period 2004 - 2008), together with live sales and ecotourism, the private sector has increasingly stocked these animals, effectively maintaining rapid metapopulation growth and contributing to the expansion of the species' range with a further 22,274 km2 added to the conservation estate in South Africa. Live sales of surplus animals to the private sector have also been highly beneficial to conservation agencies, generating vital conservation revenue and preventing overstocking in established populations. The 77% of the national herd that is kept in state controlled protected areas is strictly protected from excessive hunting, with on average only 10 animals legally hunted annually. However, the increasing poaching rate is indicative of the limited effectiveness of the current protection measures, despite the significant resources that have been deployed towards gaining control over illegal activities. Nevertheless there may be signs that these measures are having a positive impact with the reduction in rhinos lost per day having dropped to less than 1 in the second quarter of 2012. Poaching has occurred in most protected areas and some protected areas (e.g. the Kruger National Park and Pilanesberg National Park) are struggling to combat these illegal activities. Improved protection measures (enhanced intelligence gathering and effective prosecution with deterrent sentences) are required to both combat and prevent poaching.

In conclusion, the non-detriment finding undertaken for the white rhinoceros as summarized in the analyses of the key considerations above, demonstrates that legal international trade in live animals and the export of hunting trophies poses a low risk to the survival of this species in South Africa and should be allowed to continue, provided that effective measures are put in place to curb the illegal hunting of white rhino. Currently legal and illegal harvests combined are still within sustainable levels. On average 116 white rhinos are legally hunted annually (0.6% of the national population), while approximately 2.4% of the national population is currently lost to poachers, well below the net 7.1% rate of increase in the
white rhino population. The population is thus currently growing at about 4% per annum.

It has been argued that a quota system for hunting of white rhino is unnecessary at this stage because legal hunting, even factoring in the animals lost to poaching, is currently sustainable and is market driven (requiring less regulatory management). However, due to the increasing poaching rate and problems with the implementation and enforcement of the hunting permit system in some provinces, it is anticipated that this situation will change and a quota system should be developed by the SADC Rhino Management Group for future application. Improved implementation of the current regulatory system as well as the introduction of an integrated permit system that provides for a more streamlined process that has greater general support and that incentivizes greater participation by land owners is recommended, along with the gathering of additional data on hunted populations.

Contact Details: Tel 012-667-2048; /;

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